A. PUBLIC SPEAKING:
Normally a Chairman will preside over the function. This position is
used to distinguish a person on the stage, from the speaker, and it has
nothing to do with the social standing of the individual. His main
responsibility will be, to preserve order in the meeting, and regulate its
He should introduce the speaker to the audience by mentioning his name,his background and the subject or topic. The aim should be to project thespeaker and his topic so that he gets a favorable reception from the audience.
The chairman should refrain from giving his opinion on the subject
allotted to the speaker. The introductory remarks should be brief. In
fact, it should not get extended into another speech on an independent
The speaker should stick to the podium. He should not walk around the stage, talking. This will attract the attention of the audience, to his person, and not to what he is saying.
B. TRAINING PROGRAMS:
The objective of such programs is to teach and practice, in order to
bring a group of persons to a desired standard, behavior, efficiency or
physical condition. The intention is to help, in qualifying or achieving
certain standards, in a particular direction. The trainees know the
purpose of the program. No formal introduction is necessary about the Trainer or Speaker.
It is mandatory that an intimation is sent to the trainees, in advance,
detailing the program. The speaker should go straight into the subject,
without much prelude, as these programs cost money and time. The objective of the program is not to select the Best Speaker.
The purpose of a conference is to meet and discuss or exchange views on a particular topic or topics. The participants will belong to the same organization and also to the same discipline or interest. They will be well versed in the topic and connected issues.
In such conferences, the Conference Leader has more responsibility than the participants. He should plan ahead for the conference by selecting the ideal topic for deliberations. During the conference, he must act as a mediator who is friendly, impartial, alert and evinces keen interest in what is being said by each participant.
The participants should prepare well their presentations with vital data
and facts. They should participate in the deliberations with great enthusiasm. They should not interrupt others.
They should listen to other's views with interest . Each participant should express his views in an audible well-modulated, clear speech. Any grumbling will make them misunderstood.
Seminars are held by a group of persons, assembling to study a problem, and discuss the same with a professor or tutor. In such seminars, a senior person will chair the session and the proceedings will be recorded.
Only the qualified competent persons are invited for the seminar. Each
participant will be given an opportunity to express his views and observations. Anyone exceeding his limit will be checked by the chair-person. Digressing from the main subject will not be permitted. Individuals own views, not substantiated by facts, will not be tolerated.
Workshop is a place, where physical or mental powers are used, with the purpose of making something tangible. This is in contrast to mere play and recreation. In such workshops, the participants should feel free to express their views, audibly at the appropriate moment.
He should confine himself to the subject being discussed. He should be fully aware of the time schedule allocated to each subject or topics. He should not venture into areas that do not fall under his purview or expertise. Personal views will not be tolerated. The deliberations will revolve around basic facts and data only. Participants should not individualize their discussions.